Saturday, 31 December 2016

Chit Chat: General Office Etiquette – Part 2 – Sharing Equipment & Space


Many workers can have a negative approach to sharing equipment and space. They see the equipment they use as not their concern and have a ‘not my job’ attitude. Office etiquette applies to everyone and here are some general rules to follow in order to benefit the entire office environment for all.

Photocopiers
·         Allow colleagues with smaller amounts to print off to go first if you have a large amount of copies to make
·         Larger jobs can be performed first thing in the morning or after office hours to avoid delays
·         Don’t make personal copies at work
·         Check the paper draw and refill when it’s running low

Fax Machines
·         Ask permission to use the fax machine for personal use
·         Ask recipients if an email could be sent instead of a fax
·         Let people with smaller tasks go first if you have a large job on your hands
·         Drop any faxes off to your co-workers if one arrives while you’re there

Printers
·         Don’t print out large jobs on printers that are used heavily
·         Place print outs that haven’t been picked up face up where it can be easily seen
·         Drop off any finished printouts if you know who they belong to

Furniture
·           Be respectful of all furniture in the office
·           Use coasters and napkins to protect the furniture
·           Clean up after yourself

Kitchen
·         Wipe up any spillages
·         Wash up after yourself
·         Wipe down appliances after you use them
·         Refill the ice cube tray after you use it
·           Refill the coffee machine if you have the last cup
·           Don’t cook smelly foods
·           Remove your leftovers from the fridge

Restrooms
·         Don’t leave the toilet seat up in unisex restrooms
·         Wipe the basins down after use
·         Throw away paper towels and personal hygiene products
·         Avoid having conversations with others while in the stall


Friday, 30 December 2016

Cost Advantage in Time Compression Approach


The advantage of removing non value added time can be seen in cost reductions. Time compression brings many cost savings that are linked to the removal of fixed and variable overheads as well as working capital and direct costs. There are other cost savings to be made but they do depend on how compression is applied in the business. They could occur by reducing risks in decision processes, removal of rework activities and so on.

Cost implications of time compression are complex. Therefore, it’s important to put the focus on time that affects the service the supply chain offers without spending too much time identifying all the trade-offs. Cost based focus was once encouraged by using performance measurements and linking the profits with the costs. Time compression requires discovering the cost values that are associated with processes to come up with project prioritisation and to help with evaluation.

SCTCM is a toolkit that was developed by a university and industry initiative. Supply chain and cost mapping is the combination of time based process m apping and process cost analysis. SCTCM is able to show how time, value added and the costs all relate to one another throughout the supply chain. It can be useful for prioritisation, analysis and gaining. These benefits need to be weighed against the requirement to collect large amounts of cost data and the possibility of prolonging projects.

Thursday, 29 December 2016

Competitive Advantage Using Time Compression Approach


There are three basic elements of competitiveness, which are the customer, the company and the competition. If competitiveness is to be gained there needs to be differentiation between value and cost. Time compression addresses the value and cost differentiations in a certain way. Firstly, there needs to be the elimination on non value activities. This increases the value created in the supply chain. As a result of removing waste through removing non-value activities, the company also sees a cost advantage.

Reducing waste improves the performance of the company. By considering time base implications when removing waste they are able to avoid the additional cost implications in other parts of the supply chain.  For example, inventory needs to be improved by considering the time compression approach. Considering if parts of the supply chain can operate on a make to order or just in time basis can remove a stock point. By doing so, there may not be a need to spend out upgrading a warehouse management system when a new inventory regime is introduced.  Without considering time compression, a company might simply consider upgrading a warehouse management system without seeing any real long term benefits.

Wednesday, 28 December 2016

How can time compression be achieved?

There are seven strategies that can be used to achieve time compression. You can use one of the strategies or a combination that are applied from the company level to the supply chain. The seven strategies are:
  • Simplification – Removing complex processes that have probably developed over time
  • Integration – improving the movement of information flows throughout the company and integrate the flows and operations
  • Standardisation – Use best practices along with standardised modules, information protocols and components
  • Concurrent working – Changing over to parallel working and away from sequential working
  • Variance control – Avoiding time wastage and quality related waste by monitoring the processes so that problems can be corrected quickly
  • Automation – Automating to improve efficiency and improve how effective the activities in the supply chain are
  • Resource planning – Allocated the resources with the SCM best practice



Tuesday, 27 December 2016

What is time compression in supply chain?

Using time in the supply chain doesn’t necessarily mean working faster or being the fastest. Quality is vital when it comes to competitiveness and quality shouldn’t be overlooked because of speed. The time compression approach is about how companies are using time to provide a fast response to their customers by time organised business processes.

Time compression is the reduction of time that is wasted through non-value added business processes. Value added processes are the ones that transform inputs into outputs that add value to the end customer that they are prepared to pay for. These value added processes should not require any rework or correction. Some of the processes might not add any value, and therefore they may need to be reconsidered and restructured. This approach is important, especially as in a typical British bus iness; up to 95% of business processes don’t add value.

Monday, 26 December 2016

About Time Compression and Competition in the Supply Chain

Many businesses have still not jumped on board with time compression. The main reason for the slow adoption of this approach is that it requires a full commitment from the entire business, going from the top all the way down. Another reason is simply because any huge change in a business is challenging, especially when all departments may be affected to benefit each department and the supply chain as a whole.

Time compression addresses demands from customers and stiff competition. The world now expects better value, more options and higher levels of customer service. Companies that are able to meet these demands and focus on time based competition are the ones who win the battle. Supply chains are becoming more complex, with many companies choosing to source products outside of the traditional supply chain but also focusing on ensuring error free deliveries.  Demand for shorter lead times continues to rise and so cycle times are now an important consideration for Western companies. Many companies now outsource to third party logistics providers. By outsourcing, the firms are able to benefit from cost reduction.

Saturday, 24 December 2016

Chit Chat: General Office Etiquette – Part 1 – Office or Not

It’s too easy to forget modesty and good manners when working in your own office. Keeping the door close instantly creates a wall between you and your co-workers. Therefore, it’s important to keep the door open unless you need absolute quiet, have a visitor or need privacy when dealing with a co-worker or employee.  When you close the door, remember to close it quietly without slamming the door.

Have humility and don’t allow your office to make visitors feel intimidated or inadequate. Don’t put your feet up on your desk, stand up or lean on the edge of the desk when in conversation. Create a relaxed environment.

Open office etiquette is also important. Remember that everyone is working hard and they have work to be getting on with. Be respectful of their space and their time. Ask to enter a cubicle rather than simply entering the space or speaking over a wall. Remember the people around the area speak quietly; avoid socialising in cubicles and meet visitors in meeting rooms rather than in the open office space.

Rising when someone enters your space is a sign of respect.  Rising is required when a boss or a senior person enters or for s omeone elderly.  It’s also a good manner to rise when a co-worker comes into your cubicle. However, for frequent visitors it’s possible to remain seated or you’d be rising throughout the day.

Friday, 23 December 2016

About lean management and leadership

Lean management needs a team of managers, each representing their own companies within the supply chain. The managers should gather together and be trained in lean value stream analysis. Once they have the skills, the team of managers is able to map the individual steps that the product goes through from the very source to the end customer. There are five principles that help the application of lean thinking for a single thinking supply chain.
  • Specifying the value of the single product from the point of view of the end customer
  • Identifying the value stream for each of the products
  • Ensuring there are no interruptions in the value flow
  • Allowing the customer to pull from the producer
  • Aiming for perfection
With an action plan, which aims to remove waste from the chain, the team is able to agree on the future state of the supply chain. The people are reorganised and any wasteful processes are removed. The team of managers is able to continuously evaluate the chain and work towards perfection.
  • Leadership requires the following.
  • Purpose and policies
  • Contact with the people
  • Persistence and being committed to surviving and not giving up and coming up with solutions
  • Motivating people
  • Prediction and progressing



Thursday, 22 December 2016

About supply development

When introducing new products to the market there is a need to think about the supply chain. New products and even new processes will have an impact on the chain. Package size might differ; changes might be required in the pallet storage and so on. Having a proactive approach and strategy to the design of the supply chain or the individual links are therefore required.

Product design is a step that cannot be overlooked. The design of the product will specify the form of the product and the designers will come up with the ways to make the product and all the resources and purchases that will be required. The suppliers will be sourced and production teams will come together to bring the new product to market.

While the product is designed and made it’s essential that the supply chain is also designed. The chain has to fit in with the new product and make it possible to deliver the products to the customers. Designing the supply chain from one end to the other is the most efficient way of creating an efficient supply chain.

Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Distribution inventory system via economic order quantity (EOQ)

A distribution centre holds multiple products to serve the customer. The customer places an order and the distribution centre distribute the order, which is known as independent demand. The distribution centre then places orders with the factory, who then deliver in bulk.

Economic order quantity is a way that inventory decisions are approached in order to work out how much is needed to be ordered and when to place the order.  One of the costs that needs to be considered with EOQ is the costs involved in the inventory carrying, the expense of maintaining inventory. The carrying cost is the interest relinquished on the value of the average amount of products that are held in stock. The value is the current price of the product in the inventory. The carrying costs do increase as greater average inventory is held, because of the larger order quantities being placed. Another cost is the annual expense relating to the orders being placed for that product.  The ordering cost is the cost of placing the orders throughout the year. When ordering larger quantities the cost of ordering can be reduced as orders are placed less frequently.

The EOQ is the amount that is ordered, which in turn balances the carrying costs against the ordering costs. To work out the tradeoffs involved, it’s necessary to use real costs in the calculations.


Tuesday, 20 December 2016

Why hold inventory?

Many businesses are working to reduce the inventory size in order to reduce waste and make savings. That being said, inventory cannot be scraped entirely as there are some very good reasons why stock needs to be held. Let’s take a look at some of these reasons below.

  • It’s not always effective or productive to produce the individual products once an order is received.
  • Inventory can speed up processes.
  • Held stock is used for bulk transportation from a factory to a distribution centre. The goods are moved on pallets and broken down into smaller loads once at the distribution centre.
  • Stock is used as a buffer during periods of uncertain demand levels. Sales can fluctuate for multiple reasons, with demand increasing or decreasing. Retailers might also choose to hold stock if they’re unsure of when the next delivery might arrive.
  • Stock is sometimes held because of the geographical location of the customers.  A long journey time from the producer to the customer might require inventory to be held.
  • Seasonal peaks result in inventory being held as the goods need to be made months before they are going on sale.
  • To serve the customer, supermarkets need to stock large amounts of products and varieties of goods.




Monday, 19 December 2016

What are the types of transport?

There are various types of transport to consider. Many businesses need to use multiple types to transport materials and goods throughout the supply chain. There are variations in the types of transport according to quantities, regularity and the relationships between transporters and producers.

The transport can be hired for single journeys. Taxi trucks are able to carry anything from just a few boxes up to a cubic meter. A semi-trailer is more suitable for large quantities of goods on pallets or as loose cargo.

Contract carriers are used for more permanent arrangements. The carrier will move a set amount of loads each week. Alternatively, they may provide a driver and a truck for a set amount of days each week. Moving on from there, contract distribution is used. This is extremely common and now more common than having in-house transport. The transportation company is outsourced and they move the finished goods to the customers from the factory.

The contractor gives a quote and state the level of service that they will provide. Once accepted, the carrier will be responsible for the organisation and transportation of the product to the end customer.

A company will need to consider the following when finding a transport solution:

  1. Which mode will be used?
  2. What type of carrier is best?
  3. How often will the transport be needed?
  4. Which assembly to use?
  5. How much will it cost?



Saturday, 17 December 2016

Chit Chat: General Office Etiquette – Everyday Etiquette & Why It Matter

In the modern age, there is a casual approach to dress, communication and entertaining. It’s nothing to worry about as human interactions change over time and so do manners. The etiquette guidelines for today are more situational and they are tailored to situations around you.  Etiquette is based on respect, consideration and honesty. 

Respect is about recognising the value of others and it doesn’t exclude anyone.  Being respectful in your day to day life and not demeaning people or treating them as inferiors is essential. It’s also important to have self-respect without boasting.

Consideration is about being thoughtful and kind to other people.  A good rule of thumb to remember is to treat others how you like to be treated. Think about other people and what will put them at ease and carry out acts of kindness. 

Honesty is connected to ethics as well as etiquette. Honesty is about acting sincerely but also being tactful. Being tactful is a way of being honest without hurting or embarrassing the other person. You need to be empathetic and not insult.

Etiquette is important as it helps to develop a strong character, integrity and sets you up to cope with any situations that may arise in the future.  Etiquette is timeless but it’s also flexible so we’re able to respect people with other beliefs and traditions. 

Friday, 16 December 2016

About Transportation and Material Handling

Transportation is used to move materials and goods between the links in the supply chain. Transport companies consider the movement of goods as an important strategy for delivering goods to the end customer. These companies are working to integrate all the movements to improve the efficiency of transportation. 

Many transport firms are able to move customised parts and products but not as many that are able to transport resource materials such as coal. All the transportation decisions can be made at the operating level. The goal should be to find the most cost efficient transport routes between all the links.

There are external transportation modes. Outsourcing is a popular option and is now frequently replacing the in-house option. As a result, the transportation firms have developed greater skills in moving products and goods and have more experience than product manufacturers have. External transportation includes inbound transportation of materials and outbound distribution and delivery of the goods.  The types of transport used could include hired vehicles such as taxi trucks or pallet loads used on a truck.  Contract carriers are used for more permanent contracts. Contract distribution can undertake all the movements of the finished products from the factory to the end customer and customer stores.

Material handling deals with the movements between all of the processes in the factory. It involves handling with forklift trucks. They may use pallet trucks or even move materials by hand between production lines and conveyors. Robots are even used in material handling where large numbers or materials are involved.

Thursday, 15 December 2016

What are the key management decision and information recording functions?

The following are the key management decision and information recording functions:
  • A resource plan is created for the production process, operators and material supply. The resource plan is driven by the budget or the business plan
  • Sales and operations planning uses data extracted by production, logistics, sales and any other managers to come up with the provision levels for the upcoming month
  • Master production schedule decides the quantities of the finished goods that are needed in order to satisfy demand from placed orders or expected orders over a set period of weeks. The production schedule is basically a list of the end products and their quantities that are required over a set time period.
  • The product structure so materials and component parts can be assembled to the finished product are stored
  • Controlling the production activity in order to measure and also summarise the events so managers can review the information and take any necessary actions


Wednesday, 14 December 2016

What are the four processes of provisions? – Part 2

Today, we’re continuing our look at the four processes of provisions. Yesterday we touched on order taking and processes, check back on the blog if you missed part one.

The third process is dispatch.  Dispatch includes all of the activities in assembling finished goods for an order at the manufacturing plant and moving it to the customer. Order assembly is the first physical activity to take place. The operator beings each line item and assembles them. 

The operator performs checks to ensure everything required by the customer is included. It’s then moved onto vehicles and taken to the customer.  Dispatch is part of the distribution and it follows the products as they move from the manufacturer to the middlemen and then the end customer. Dispatch is made up of the following components:

  • Bulk transport moving goods from the factory to the distribution centre
  • The distribution stores, picks and assembles the products based on the customer orders
  • Despatching from the distribution centre to the customer
  • Cross docking, repacking and despatching also takes place at the distribution centre
  • Coordination of the second tier customers
  • Product tracking
  • Inventory control
The fourth process is logistics customer service. This deals with all the functions of provisions that don’t involve physical action or product. The logistics customer service deals with the service parameters of the delivery of the product and after sales and warranty, etc. These services are a necessity of purchasing materials, making the goods and dispatching them to the customer. 

There are intangible services that customers expect or demand from the companies they use. They may want next day delivery or at least expect the product to arrive when promised during the ordering process. 



Tuesday, 13 December 2016

What are the four processes of provisions? – Part 1

Over the next couple of days we’re going to take a look at the four key logistics functions that present in one company.  

Order Taking and Forecasting Demand

Order taking involves receiving customer orders in the product line of the supply chain. The orders need to be checked to make sure it is possible for the manufacturers to complete and that they meet the financial guidelines. They also need to give a response to the customer, letting them know that the goods are available or can be made order, the price of the order and the delivery promise.

The order is often performed by an electronic message and this is preceded by the order forecast. Checks are made by the manufacturer to ensure the customer can pay, which is usually performed by a computer program. When the order has been received multiple steps need to be taken to give the products to the customer. There’s a lot of variety in the orders depending on the sale type, if the customer is an individual or a company and if the product is a customised item or a commodity. Forecasting demand isn’t an operation function, but it is normally included so it’s possible to estimate the potential number of orders. 

Fast response is considered to be a key factor in decent provision of goods, and forecasts are needed to give the producing firm the information it needs when it can’t make goods in an acceptable time period after an order has been received. Many firms use a mix of actual and forecast orders and the customer relies on forecasts more.  The forecast is made by the past order patterns and the forecast accuracy is calculated too.  
Provisions are the processes of the purchase, produce, dispatch and serve. The purpose of the provision is to perfect the flow by incorporating each of the activities that make up sourcing materials from upstream so the products can be made and delivered to the next link in the supply chain.  Purchasing processes need:

  • Appointed several companies that are able to provide the component parts and raw materials
  • Able to receive the materials and the components on time
  • Evaluate the suppliers to make sure they achieve the deliveries as promised
Many firms work out blank orders with suppliers for one year and the operators inform suppliers of actual quantities and the different material types each day. This running relationship depends on finding potential companies and negotiating commercial relationships. The second process is production and this is all the different steps that are taken to change the raw materials and components into a finished product. 

Monday, 12 December 2016

Brief history of integrated logistics and what the logistics manager is involved in

Logistics began in a military context. It was used to ensure all the actions taken that would keep the army fighting the war. The service and manufacturing firms didn’t have logistics functions fifty years ago and the sales department were the ones who took care of customer service. The inventory was the responsibility of sales or manufacturing depending on the location. The inbound transport was organised by suppliers, while the outbound was down to the sales department.

Many companies have created the logistic function so they could deal with an increase in storage and movement functions. The logistics manager is involved in the following areas:
  • Order processing
  • Purchases
  • Inbound transport
  • Production plans and production schedules
  • Distribution transportation
  • Warehouse management
  • Information systems including materials requirements and customer response management
Logistics is still considered as a new function and there are many companies that still haven’t made great changes in the organisation structure.  It’s common for chief executive officers and directors not to be educated or experienced in logistics.  As a result, they don’t see the potential contribution that logistics brings and think of logistics to be expensive and consisting of menial tasks.  However, many managers are now moving away from functional departments but moving towards processes. 

Saturday, 10 December 2016

Chit Chat: Basic Business Etiquette

Everyone wants to work in an environment that is respectful and courteous. Today, we’re taking a quick look at basic business etiquette that is used to create a pleasant working environment for everyone. 
  • Hold doors open for everyone. Open the door for people, allow everyone to move through the door and hold the door for anyone who is entering the door behind you too. The door should be held open for all people regardless of their status or their gender.
  • When in a lift, hold the door open button down until everyone has entered or exited the elevator. It’s also common courtesy not to enter the lift until everyone has exited.
  • Stand up when a person or people enter the room and greet them with respect by shaking hands.  Help them to remove their coats and offer to hang them up or place it on the back of a chair. Offer your visitors a seat before you sit back down.
  • Introduce people of lower business rank to the people of high business rank.



Friday, 9 December 2016

About supply chain integration and strategy

The success of a business relies upon the strength of the efficient integrated supply chain. Much of the competition found between businesses these days lies in the supply chains. It is essential to get the products to the customers when they want it. In order to achieve this, all partner companies in supply chains have to work together to create and execute the supply chain strategy that satisfies customers while bringing in a suitable return. 

All partners need to be linked to ensure the goods or services flow efficiencies to end consumers. This is only achievable by collaborating with the customers, trading partners, service providers and suppliers. The main goal is to ensure product flow as the customers require it to flow and that the flow can respond dynamically to any changes that customers make to their orders.   In order to achieve this it’s necessary to:
  • Know the boundaries of the supply chain
  • How many supplier tiers are included in the supply chain
  • What service providers play an important role in the chain flow outcomes
  • The location of the decoupling point
  • The human and physical resources required
Managers must be aware of the other winners. These are the parameters that customers consider to be critical. They could be the quality of the products or the speed of delivery or even products available at the lowest cost to them. Managers that know order winners are able to design a supply chain that is able to meet them by making strategic decisions.

Supply chains have to be integrated. Information must be shared between partners and customers and flow through the chain without errors.  By sharing information, managers are able to increase the accuracy and the speed of the entire chain. With synchronised operations it’s possible to reduce the size of the inventory and remove duplicated practices. The chain becomes efficient, responsive and as a result costs are cut and times are reduced.


Thursday, 8 December 2016

What are management and leadership of supply chains?

Management focuses on reaching set goals using the following steps:

  •   Planning
  •   Organising
  •   Leading
  •   Controlling

Management incorporates all of these activities. The management has to make strategic decisions and these decisions have an effect on the position of the company.  This includes making tactical decisions and operating decisions. All of these steps help the company to run as it needs to.

Leadership is about influencing people so that the goals of the company are met. Leadership is a part of management but in supply chains the term leadership refers to coordination between the different companies within the supply chain to reach the goals of the supply chain as a whole.  Leadership is complex as there is a need for trust to be on pace for all of the firms that make up the supply chain. There are not many supply chains that have built up effective leadership at this time. 

Wednesday, 7 December 2016

What is information, communication support management?

There is a lot of information that is needed in a supply chain. Information needs to flow through the chain. How can we make sure that information moves to the right people at the right times to help managers organise the information, use it to measure performance and manage the entire chain and all of its parts?  Let’s look at the basic information that is used in the supply chain:
  • The order – The products and quantities that have been requested by the customers
  • The production schedule – manufacture instructions 
  • The purchase order – the materials that are needed from the suppliers
  • Inventory record – quantity of materials or goods that are available at a location
  • Dispatch advice – this is included with the goods as they move to their destination
Modern businesses now use computers to relay this information. They use order processing systems that perform checks on the incoming order and make sure the customer is able to pay for the goods. They also instruct the storeman via a warehouse management system who will then pack and dispatch the goods. Manufacturing companies use enterprise resource planning systems. These systems help them to make purchases and manufacture the required parts needed for end products. Some companies use distribution requirements planning systems that track the finished products through all steps up to the end customer. 

Operators and managers receive summaries of performance over set periods of time. The key performance measures include:
  • Quality
  • On time delivery
  • Costs
Information has to flow between each of the partners in the supply chain. The internet and telephone now make it possible for up to date information to be exchanged. Electronic data exchange allows computers to communicate this information and documents are sent instantly, ensuring information is where it needs to be. 


Tuesday, 6 December 2016

Why work on supply chain?

Businesses have to overcome the challenge of integrating supply chains that benefit their customers while making a profit.  The main issue for these businesses is inefficiency. All businesses have a lot of waste in the business but other causes and contributing factors of inefficiency include:
  • Missing or a lack of information
  • Poor management
  • No leadership
  • Power plays
  • A large amount of stock resulting in large inventories
  • Misdirected efforts
  • Delays
  • Trust issues
This is why it’s important to focus on reducing waste in the supply chain to remove the inefficiencies and increase profits while servicing the customer.

This will provide the customer with greater value and benefit the company as a result. Waste in the supply chain and in business is a human activity that uses up resources without creating value. The first people recognise this waste were Japanese manufacturers.

There are many gains to be achieved by eliminating waste that include cutting production times, reducing inventories, customer satisfaction and increased profit. When integrating supply chains it’s essential to ensure waste has been removed from each part of the chain in order to run more efficiently. 


Monday, 5 December 2016

What is a basic chain?

A supply chain includes many aspects, from the physical movement of goods to the coordination and management of the entire chain.  The steps involved in building a supply chain are:

  • Setting up information flow between all partners in the chain
  • Setting up the movement of all necessary parts, materials and manufactured finished products to the end customers
  • Managing the flow of chains
  • Chain leadership

The development of a basic chain includes the major parts of a supply chain; the basic chain can then be integrated into the supply chain. 

Once there is a basic chain the use of the Double Bell Model is implemented. The Double Bell Model is simply the generic representation of the complete supply network. Each of the processes in the chain that starts at the source and leads to the end customers has four key components as mentioned above. 

The left hand bell is the one with the largest amount of suppliers of materials and components that move through many tiers to the focal manufacturer. The central ellipse is where the conversions take place, where the materials are turned into products or services. The bell on the right is the distribution of the goods to the end consumers via intermediaries and the transport that delivers the goods.  

Saturday, 3 December 2016

Chit Chat: What are some customer service tools and techniques? Part 3

Today, we’re continuing our look at some customer service tools and techniques.

Providing Alternatives to Customers
Providing alternatives is a simple technique that is used to appease customers. Offering different products or services or even actions that could help to solve the customers’ issues can be used to provide a better level of customer service. Use probing questions to find with alternatives to offer the customer shows that you understand and interested in helping the customer.

Referral to a Supervisor
Sometimes it’s not possible for the employee to handle the problem for the customer. Sometimes the customer may ask to speak to a supervisor or the employee might not have the authority to take the required action. Speaking to someone higher up in the company can be helpful for particularly angry individuals who may respond more positively when speaking with a supervisor.  Supervisors and employees need to be on the same wavelength when dealing with referrals.

Refocusing
Sometimes customers get too emotionally involved in the conversation and can become more personal; attacking the person they are speaking to. Take control of this situation by refocusing the conversation and bringing it back to the original complaint. Showing empathy is a must and you need to show that you understand why the customer is angry but state that you are there to help and you have a few suggestions. Remove the customer attention from their anger and refocus them back on the problems and finding a constructive solution rather than personal attacks.